Many historians regard Western Europe, after the fall of the Roman Empire, as completely, a barren wilderness in the history of science. Contemptuously, they. European science in the Middle Ages comprised the study of nature, mathematics and natural philosophy in medieval Europe. Following the fall of the Western. There is a major fallacy in the concept of the 'Dark Ages'. That period coincides exactly with the Muslim apogee. In the midst of Europe's darkness, almost. It is Daoists who make the most startling chemical discovery of the period - gunpowder. In the profoundly Christian centuries of the European Middle Ages the. Many of the earliest chemists, physicians, and philosophers were also alchemists . German alchemist who isolated phosphorus, and another German alchemist of the same period who developed a porcelain Alchemy after the Middle Ages. Areas covered include the earliest period of Alchemy in the Late Antiquity, Early Alchemy during European and Arabic Early Middle Ages and Chemical. Alchemy in the Middle Ages was a mixture of science, philosophy, and mysticism. Alchemists believed that the "transmutation" of one substance into another was possible; thus we have the cliché of medieval alchemists seeking to "turn lead into gold." Medieval alchemists produced. The Islamic Golden Age was a period of cultural, economic and scientific flourishing in the .. This controversy persisted until al-Ash'ari (–) found a middle ground between Mu'tazilite rationalism and Hanbalite Kevin M. Dunn, Caveman chemistry: 28 projects, from the creation of fire to the production of plastics. Petrarch believed that the Dark Ages was a period of intellectual darkness due to the loss of the classical learning, which he saw as light. Later historians picked.